High pressure homogenization process pumps are able to deliver 100-300 MPa hydrostatic pressure to a liquid before any restriction to flow is imposed, regardless of the flow rate. Current industrial, pilot, and lab-scale high pressure homogenizers are equipped with plunger-like pumps and valves, or nozzles, or chambers made from abrasion-resistant ceramics or hard gemstones. There are mainly three traits that characterize effective homogenization: cavitation (FIG. A), impact (FIG. B), and shear. The valves, nozzles, or chambers possess one or a combination of these traits. (Adapted from pressure homogenization.html)
Selection Guide for Chamber Types

Type of Chamber Cavitation Nozzle (FIG. A) Impact Valve (FIG. B) Y-Type Chamber (FIG. C)
Application High viscosity liquid,
suspension or paste
Food, Beverage Pharmaceutical Emulsion,
Advantage Old Style Use for Food High Efficacy

Genizer Y type Diamond Interaction Chamber


Three-Types Homogenizing Mechanism in History
The Y-Type Interaction Chamber (FIG. C), regarded as one of the most powerful chambers to date, has been used by several manufacturers, including Microfluidics (Y-Type Interaction Chamber), Avestin (Static Homogenizing Valve) and Nanomizer (Collision-Type Generator). In these systems, the flow stream is split into two channels that are redirected over the same plane at right angles and propelled into a single flow stream. High pressure promotes a high speed at the crossover of the two flows, which results in high shear, turbulence, and cavitation over the single outbound flow stream.

The Y-Type Chamber is generally made of two blocks of diamond or ceramic with a very small opening (nozzle) of Φ50~400μm. Two block-forming members are first ground and lapped to be optically flat, and then grooves corresponding to the desired sizes and shapes are etched into the face of each block in a precisely aligned manner.Homogenization energy is concentrated at the collision point where the liquid streams collide in the internal drain. (Adapted from

Y-Type Chamber made by two blocks of optically flat disk

Y-Type Chamber made by two blocks of optically flat disk


Cells Mammalian cell
Insect cell Bacteria cell Yeast cell Algae cell SPore
Sample CHO|Hela Sf9|Sf21|H5 E. Coli   Yeast Green algaea Ganoderma
Pressure 600-800bar   8500-11500psi 600-1000bar 8500-14500psi 800-1000bar 11500-14500psi 1200-1400bar 17500-20000psi 1200-1500bar 7500-21500psi 1300-1600bar 18500-23000psi
Chamber F20Y, F20Y-RT F20Y, F20Y-RT F20Y, F20Y-RT F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y

Emulsions Oil in water emulsions
Water in oil emulsions Oil emulsion Food Liposome (o/w) Liposome (w/o)
Sample Fat emulsion| Prostaglandin Cosmetics Dimethicone|Fuel Milk Doxorubicin DNA|lipopolyplex
Pressure ~20,000psi ~10,000psi ~20,000psi ~10,000psi ~20,000psi ~8,000psi
Chamber F20Y, F12Y F20Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y

Dispersions Pigments
Drugs/Creams Battery Particle aggregation Graphene Nanotubes
Sample Inks, Coatings Norfloxacin, Isoxyl Lithium/Solar cell Nano fibril Graphene Carbon Nanotubes
Pressure ~20,000psi ~20,000psi ~20,000psi ~25,000psi ~50,000psi
(single layer)
Chamber F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y