TECHNOLOGY
Technology
What is homogenization?

Homogenization or homogenisation is any of several processes used to make a mixture of two mutually non-soluble liquids the same throughout. This is achieved by turning one of the liquids into a state consisting of extremely small particles distributed uniformly throughout the other liquid. It is the process of converting two immiscible liquids into an emulsion (Adapted from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homogenization_(chemistry)). 

Genizer homogenization technology is applying microfluidics Diamond Interaction Chamber (DIXC) to produce uniform nanoparticles in high shear homogenizers. The processed fluid passes through the fixed geometry within the Y-Type and Z-Type microfluidics chamber (can also be considered a contininuous microreactor) to create a uniform processing profile. Through this method, oil-in-water and water-in-oil nanoemulsions (100–1000 nm) can be produced.


High Pressure Nozzel VS. Impact Valve VS. Microfludics Chamber (Microreactor)

High pressure homogenization process pumps are able to deliver 100-300 MPa hydrostatic pressure to a liquid before any restriction to flow is imposed, regardless of the flow rate. Current industrial, pilot, and lab-scale high pressure homogenizers are equipped with plunger-like pumps and valves, or nozzles, or chambers made from abrasion-resistant ceramics or hard gemstones. There are mainly three traits that characterize effective homogenization: cavitation (FIG. A), impact (FIG. B), and shear. The valves, nozzles, or chambers possess one or a combination of these traits. (Adapted from http://web.utk.edu/~fede/high pressure homogenization.html)
 
Selection Guide for Chamber Types

 
Type of Chamber Cavitation Nozzle (FIG. A) Impact Valve (FIG. B) Y-Type Chamber (FIG. C)
Application High viscosity liquid,
suspension or paste
Food, Beverage Pharmaceutical Emulsion,
Nanoparticles
Advantage Old Style Use for Food High Efficacy


Genizer Y type Diamond Interaction Chamber

 













Three-Types Homogenizing Mechanism in History
 
The Y-Type Interaction Chamber (FIG. C), regarded as one of the most powerful chambers to date, has been used by several manufacturers, including Microfluidics (Y-Type Interaction Chamber), Avestin (Static Homogenizing Valve) and Nanomizer (Collision-Type Generator). In these systems, the flow stream is split into two channels that are redirected over the same plane at right angles and propelled into a single flow stream. High pressure promotes a high speed at the crossover of the two flows, which results in high shear, turbulence, and cavitation over the single outbound flow stream.

The Y-Type Chamber is generally made of two blocks of diamond or ceramic with a very small opening (nozzle) of Φ50~400μm. Two block-forming members are first ground and lapped to be optically flat, and then grooves corresponding to the desired sizes and shapes are etched into the face of each block in a precisely aligned manner.Homogenization energy is concentrated at the collision point where the liquid streams collide in the internal drain. (Adapted from www.nanomizer.co.jp)


Y-Type Chamber made by two blocks of optically flat disk

Y-Type Chamber made by two blocks of optically flat disk

 
PRESSURE AND CHAMBER SELECTION FOR VARIOUS APPLICATIONS with NANOGENIZER

 
Cells Mammalian cell
Mammalian cell
Insect cellInsect cell Bacteria cellBacteria cell Yeast cellYeast cell Algae cellAlgae cell SPore
SPore
Sample CHO|Hela Sf9|Sf21|H5 E. Coli   Yeast Green algaea Ganoderma
Pressure 600-800bar   8500-11500psi 600-1000bar 8500-14500psi 800-1000bar 11500-14500psi 1200-1400bar 17500-20000psi 1200-1500bar 7500-21500psi 1300-1600bar 18500-23000psi
Chamber F20Y, F20Y-RT F20Y, F20Y-RT F20Y, F20Y-RT F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y











 
Emulsions Oil in water emulsions
Fat emulsion| Prostaglandin
Water in oil emulsionsCosmetics Oil emulsionDimethicone|Fuel FoodMilk Liposome (o/w)Doxorubicin Liposome (w/o)
DNA|lipopolyplex
Sample Fat emulsion| Prostaglandin Cosmetics Dimethicone|Fuel Milk Doxorubicin DNA|lipopolyplex
Pressure ~20,000psi ~10,000psi ~20,000psi ~10,000psi ~20,000psi ~8,000psi
Chamber F20Y, F12Y F20Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y















 
Dispersions Pigments
Inks, Coatings
Drugs/CreamsNorfloxacin, Isoxyl BatteryLithium/Solar cell Particle aggregationNano fibril GrapheneGraphene Nanotubes
Carbon Nanotubes
Sample Inks, Coatings Norfloxacin, Isoxyl Lithium/Solar cell Nano fibril Graphene Carbon Nanotubes
Pressure ~20,000psi ~20,000psi ~20,000psi ~25,000psi ~50,000psi
(single layer)
>20,000psi
Chamber F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y F20Y, F12Y